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The Title I Program and How it Supports Academic Progress

Title I is a federal grant that supports academic success in compliance with the No Child Left Behind Act . Title I funding is determined by the number of students who qualify for the free and reduced lunch program.

Services are provided for any student who qualifies as a result of formal reading assessments such as the the Benchmark Assessment System, The Observation Survey and the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS). Students who participate in the Title I program receive Literacy Support, Leveled Literacy Intervention, and/or Reading Recovery, which are supplementary to their regular classroom curriculum.

Title 1 service interventions are delivered in two sessions. The first session runs from September through January and the second session from February through June. Students may participate in one or both intervention sessions during the year based on their literacy support needs. Title I teachers use formative assessments to monitor students' ongoing reading and writing progress. Students enter and exit the program during the school year based on the results of the beginning, middle and end-of-year reading assessments mentioned above.

The Bresnahan School offers the following three tiers of intervention:

Literacy Support (Grades K-2) is based on a comprehensive literacy model. Students receive additional literacy instruction in small peer groups or one-to-one with a literacy support teacher. Literacy Support teachers work with students in the classroom, during the literacy block, and outside of the classroom in a literacy support setting.

Literacy Support lessons include both fiction and non-fiction texts. The books are leveled or “just right” so that students can access the text with varying levels of teacher support, depending on what reading strategies the student is learning or practicing.

Student writing and word analysis support varies during lessons depending on the students' use of reading and writing strategies, as well as the overall lesson goals. Literacy Support lessons are specifically designed to meet each student's individual needs.

The objective of a literacy support intervention is to increase students' reading and writing skills in order to read and comprehend higher level texts. Title I teachers also collaborate with the classroom teachers to supplement and reinforce students' literacy instruction and to monitor their literacy progress.
 
Reading Recovery (Grade 1) is a one-to-one 30 minute daily literacy intervention for students in the first grade. This tutorial program is designed to help students develop reading and writing strategies with the use of materials and texts that match each student's interest and reading level. It is based on the individual needs of the student, and is supplemental to the first grade literacy curriculum.

Each Reading Recovery lesson includes reading one or two familiar stories to practice fluency, working with letters and sounds on a magnetic board to engage in word analysis, and writing a story in a writing book to practice word construction. Each day a new “just-right” leveled book is introduced to the student to read. This book allows the student to problem-solve some new vocabulary and is followed up with comprehension questions about the story. Books are sent home daily so children can practice reading fluency and gain confidence.

The immediate goal of Reading Recovery is to assist children to read confidently and successfully with their peers in first grade. The long-term goal is that children continue to improve in reading and writing through their regular class instruction and their independent reading.

Leveled Literacy Intervention (LLI) (Grades K-2) is a short-term, literacy intervention designed for children in kindergarten through second grade who struggle with reading and writing.  The goal of LLI is to provide intensive reading and writing support to help these early learners quickly reach grade-level benchmarks.  The 30-minute, daily intervention is recommended for groups of three students which enables the strategic teaching designed to support individual students.  The LLI intervention is supplemental to the instruction provided by the classroom teacher.    

During daily lessons, the children read new books at both independent and instructional text levels, write about books, engage in phonics and word study activities, and reread books to practice phrased reading and apply independent reading strategies.  Additionally, teachers provide specific instruction in comprehension.  Children discuss books and return to the text to clarify their understanding or provide evidence of their thinking.  Each day, students take home their book bags containing a book to reread with their families.  These daily rereads are an important component of the students’ literacy lessons.  Rereading enables students to practice the reading strategies they are learning, supports fluent reading, and builds self-confidence.      

LLI lessons are differentiated in many ways, and LLI groups are flexible so that students are able to join another group if their progress rate surpasses or lags behind their peer group.  Students are assessed both formally and informally during their participation in the intervention program and are discontinued when they reach grade level reading benchmarks.

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